Male factor infertility refers to the failure of a couple to achieve conception due to problems specifically related to the man’s sperm, seminal fluid or reproductive organs. A number of things can affect sperm count, ability to move (motility) or ability to fertilize the egg. The most common causes of male infertility include:
Tests for male infertility attempt to determine whether any of these processes are impaired.
Abstaining from alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs can improve male fertility. A healthy diet, sufficient (not excessive) exercise, proper amounts of vitamin B12, vitamin C and zinc also improve fertility.
Addressing impotence or premature ejaculation can improve fertility. Treatment for these problems often is primarily with medication or behavioural approaches, though mechanical and surgical treatments are sometimes effective. Artificial insemination with an ejaculate could be deployed to overcome infertility.
Hormonal treatment is needed usually in 5% of the men. Other treatments include surgical treatment of varicocele, ejaculatory duct incisions and sperm concentration methods through electroejaculation.
Microsurgical bypass operations, micro-epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA) and bilateral testicular biopsies are the treatment procedures that are commonly deployed.